(This article was published in the print version of Liberia’s Daily Observer on Thursday, December 10, 2009.)
While many people in developed nations are aware of the UN climate change conference COP15 being held in Copenhagen from December 7 through 18; however, what they might not be aware of is how important this conference is to the people of developing nations like Liberia. The people living in some of the poorest regions on the earth are already experiencing the devastating effects of climate change. This mere fact proves that the impacts of human activities in one part of the world can greatly alter the lives and livelihoods in another part of the world. It is clear that based on the evidence that global warming is a worldwide concern that is not obstructed by borders or boundaries.
One of the many challenges of these talks is to sensitize the leaders and people of the industrialized nations that they carry the greatest responsibility for the shift in temperatures around the world from their manufacturing plants emitting high amounts of carbon dioxide into the air to the high energy demands for transportation and other modern day conveniences creating an over consumption of fossil fuels. The people of developing nations cannot afford to be no longer heard since they are witnesses to major environmental shifts such as extreme droughts and flooding that have weaken their seasonal crop production and caused many to flee their homes being forced to rely on international aid programs for food assistance.
This conference is bringing together approximately 34,000 delegates of scientists, environmentalists, journalists, grassroots organizations and many other people representing 192 countries to address this critical escalating problem. Also, 100 heads of states or government including US President Barack Obama, China’s Premier Wen Jiabao, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Brazil’s President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and leaders of the European Union (EU) who are set to attend a climax summit on December 18 (Curtain Set to Rise on Climate Change). According to Yvo de Boer, executive secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), this conference is calling for an international agreement of the following four essentials (von Bülow, March 2009):
1. How much are the industrialized countries willing to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2)?
2. How much are major developing countries such as China and India willing to do to limit the growth of their emissions?
3. How is the help needed by developing countries to engage in reducing their emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change going to be financed?
4. How is that money going to be managed?
This conference is addressing a problem that will not correct itself. Clearly every human has played a part in contributing to the problem of global warming no matter how small or large. However, for the people of developing nations their contribution is negligible compared to the people of developed nations. There is no dispute that industrialized nations like the U.S. use more than their share of the world’s supply of non-renewable natural resources like fossil fuels, and essential life sustaining sources like fresh water.
Since the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, manufacturing companies have been a major contributor to air, soil and water pollution. Also, commercial farming and urban development have stripped away many forests, natural habitats for other living creatures, and precious top soil for growing food and other plant life. With this ongoing advancement of technology and the expansion of human settlements several animal and plant species have gone extinct forever, natural protective barriers such as the mangrove swamps have been destroyed that can no longer hold back the surging sea water, and large sections of land that were cleared of trees for agriculture purposes are being threatened by desertification. These significant changes in our environment can be seen and felt all over the world.
Based on these destructive human generated activities, it would seem as if people feel that another planet is waiting for us once we have destroyed this one. Who knows maybe some people believe that since scientists have discovered how to clone other living things like Dolly the sheep that they are in the process of cloning another earth.
Strangely, some theorists have gone so far to claim that Mars was the Garden of Eden and Noah’s Ark transported us to settle on earth when the “red planet” could no longer support life. As crazy as this notion sounds, it sure seems that humans have taken for granted that this one planet that we all call home is also a living being that can be destroyed and even die. Now in the 21st century as the fate of the earth is unknown, scientists and theorists are debating on whether human colonies can be supported on Mars if the earth becomes uninhabitable because we lost the battle to global warming (Moore).
Regardless of these theories, the planet earth has its own history and there have been certain occurrences that should caution us in being over-confident or arrogant in believing that we humans cannot cause our own extinction.
First one comes from a scientific perspective regarding the extinction of the greatest creatures that once walked the earth, the dinosaurs. For decades archeologists have been uncovering the fossils and remains of these gentle or fierce beasts. They have examined their bones and reconstructed them into skeletal frames to learn more on how they once lived and what may have been the cause to their destruction as a species. There is more than one theory that exists about their untimely death, and yet many of us stand in awe as we look up at these mighty beasts displayed in museum exhibits around the world wondering how such creatures ever existed.
The second one comes from a religious perspective. God one day decided to purge the earth of all the living creatures, because they had become corrupt and violent. He commanded Noah in building an Ark that would safely carry his family and two of each animal living on the earth. That fateful day came where for 40 days and nights the great rains flooded the entire earth wiping out every living thing. When the rain finally stopped it was a new dawn for life of all the species that had been finding refuge on the ark (Genesis 6:1 to 9:17).
Granted, God made convent with Noah to not flood the earth again; however, who knows God might have the prerogative to have a change of heart. There is no dispute that human corruption and violence continues to be our destiny. If God decides to purge the earth again maybe this time humans will not be selected to build the next ark or even be included as one of its passengers.
Of all living creatures, humans are the most destructive and violent beings on this planet. For several centuries now, we have waged war over religious differences, acquisition of large tracts of land through colonization, and also of natural resources and minerals such as oil, diamonds and gold. In this century and beyond wars could be waged over limited supplies of food and fresh drinking water, because we failed as the collective human society to ensure proper and equitable distribution of these essentials to life.
Anyone who has stepped beyond the borders of the developed world knows that we use and waste more food, energy and water than in the developing world. How is it that a smaller population of world’s people living in developed nations uses greater amounts of water and energy while large populations of people living in the developing world are starving and living in extreme poverty? This question can no longer be ignored by the developed world, because the amount of CO2 and other green house gases that have been emitted into the atmosphere have altered the natural cycle of our climate where the increase of global temperatures are having devastating effects, especially in the developing world.
In fact on Tuesday, December 8, the Associated Press reported that “the U.N.’s weather agency boosted the sense of urgency surrounding the conference with data showing this decade is on track to be the hottest since records began in 1850, with 2009 the fifth-warmest year ever. The second warmest decade was the 1990s.” Also, from scientific analysis of tree rings and retreating glaciers conducted by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences they cited that “the last few decades are the warmest period in at least 400 years and probably 1,000 years” based on the evidence they found in their research (Heilprin).
Therefore, the Copenhagen conference is an important convergence of people from many nations and backgrounds to find equitable solutions for this global concern. According to Connie Hedegaard, Danish Minister for Climate and Energy and incoming COP15 President there must be an accord reached by the delegates in effort to “seal the deal” among the nations represented. She views this conference as “window of opportunity” since the momentum is at its highest point ever. Otherwise she commented that “if the whole world comes to Copenhagen and leaves without making the needed political agreement, then I think it’s a failure that is not just about climate. Then it’s the whole global democratic system not being able to deliver results in one of the defining challenges of our century. And that is and should not be a possibility. It’s not an option (von Bülow, October 2009).”
As the world waits for the results from COP 15, we must take a moment to realize that we are fighting for our future existence. We must realize that the earth is a miracle that was created to be our one and only home, which we have been entrusted with its care and preservation of its life-giving and life-sustaining resources. No matter our culture, religious belief, experience or education, we are united as one family and like any individual household we must learn the process of sharing and conserving the earth’s resources to ensure peace and harmony. If we can practice this simple rule from the individual household to our global home then this would be the greatest achievement ever accomplished in human history.
Curtain set to rise on climate summit. Yahoo!® News. 06 December 2009. 08 December 2009 http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20091207/ts_afp/unclimatewarming_20091207024730
Heilprin, John, and Charles J. Hanley. Leaked document stirs anger at climate summit. Associated Press. 09 December 2009. 09 December 2009 http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5i9TuMrvrknh-ZXwqmZ2N-48kff3wD9CFMQ380
Moore, Matthew. Human colony on Mars ‘will make the world a better place’. 09 September 2009. 08 December 2009 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science- news/6162355/Human-colony-on-Mars-will-make-the-world-a-better-place.html
von Bülow, Michael. The Essentials in Copenhagen. COP15. 16 March 2009. 08 December 2009 http://en.cop15.dk/news/view+news?newsid=876
von Bülow, Michael. Failure in Copenhagen is not an option. COP15. 02 October 2009. 08 December 2009 http://en.cop15.dk/news/view+news?newsid=2257
Note: This article was published in the Liberian Forum on September 20, 2009 (http://www.liberianforum.com/Articles/Climate-Change-Focus-Liberia-West-Africa.html).
There has been increased international attention about concerns of climate change within Liberia. This small tropical nation in West Africa is not only home to about 3.5 million people, but also to one of the most diverse rain forests on the planet[1,2]. This vast landscape of flora and fauna has for the last six years slowly arisen from the ashes of a fiery 14 years of civil conflict that also left much of the nation’s infrastructure in ruins. Liberians have subsisted for the last two decades without publicly management systems for electricity, potable water and waste management. Without access to the basic life essentials due to rampant unemployment, many citizens are vulnerable to food insecurity, and poverty-related health and safety issues. In recognition of such human suffering, climate change policy-making has been broadened to include how changes in the environment impact human lives in developing nations, and how adaption and mitigation policies that protect it can be a means to reduce poverty.
The realities of environmental changes or global warming is being seen and felt by every nation on the planet. Usually the areas where the humans sustain the most impact are in developing nations leaving them homeless and relying on international aid for food, medical and shelter. For example, the 2009 rainy season has taken its toll on 16 West African countries due to widespread flooding from heavy torrential rains that has affected approximately 600,000 people. So far, 159 people have died mostly from Sierra Leone. In some areas like Burkina Faso this has been the worst flooding in 90 years. West Africa’s displacement and casualty rate is nearing the reported data from 2007 with 800,000 people affected and 300 died. Fears are looming that more heavy rain will fall on waterlogged areas causing more destruction (Basu).
This article will narrow the focus on one West African Country—Liberia. It will examine noticeable climate changes and their impacts within this tropical nation, domestic and international efforts to address these changes through policy making, and the future outlook of Liberia in protecting their entrusted environment.
The information gathered for this article comes from various sources, but mostly through climate change workshops. This writer has participated in three workshops (listed below) that were all held in Liberia on climate change that centered on making the nation carbon neutral by 2050. These workshops shared various programs for reducing carbon emissions in the energy, forestry and agriculture sectors and paying particular attention to Liberia’s Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) related to these conservation efforts.
March 23-27 Conservation International (CI): Forest Carbon Project Course
May 14 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN): Livelihoods and Landscapes Strategy (LLS) Workshop
June 24-26 United Nations Development Programme-Liberia (UNDP) and Environment Protection Agency of Liberia (EPA): National Inter-Ministerial Dialogue on Climate Change
Participants included both international and local stakeholders—scientists, conservationists, government officials, NGO representatives, educators, and rural citizens—committed to seeking equitable solutions for Liberia’s changing environment as they relate to global climate concerns.
Climate Change Impact on Liberia
On a global scale, Liberia’s contribution to the greenhouse effect is negligible. Nevertheless, within the borders of nations like Liberia, noticeable indicators demonstrate serious changes in landscape and weather patterns. This evidence proves that Liberia can no longer ignore the national issue of climate change. One such indicator of change is the reduction of its rainforest from 90% coverage of land mass in 1959 to less than 50% today. Deforestation has occurred, in part, from some 960,000 trees being felled each year for cooking and heating purposes. Firewood and charcoal are primary energy sources for 99% of the population (Koffa, 8).
A second indicator of change is how Liberia is slowly losing coastal land to global warming and development of these wetlands for economic reasons. Rising global temperatures are raising sea levels and encroaching on the shores. Increasing human activities are also adversely affecting the coastal region. Sand mining for construction purpose is a major contributor to coastal erosion because low lying areas have suffered increased flooding during the last few rainy seasons. An example is Monrovia’s Sinkor District in 2007. Additionally the destruction of mangrove swamps for residential development has diminished the natural protection they provide from the flooding by ocean storm surges of the habitat of some endangered aquatic species.
A third indicator of change is that the rainy season begins later each year and lasts for a shorter period of time. This is creating water shortages during the dry season in prime agriculture areas such as Lofa County and heightening concerns of desertification due to high levels of deforestation in the area. Previously, the rainy season has been considered April/May through October/November. This year the rainy season made its official debut in June. The normal torrential rains can occur less often but more intensive. In the first month alone, many people living in zinc or mat (thatch-palm) houses in swamp zones near suburban areas like Paynesville and other coastal regions were left without shelter when raging flood waters washed away their ramshackle dwellings.
Additional, human activities have increased Liberia’s contribution to green house gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from the high use of fossil fuels for electricity and transportation. First are the generators producing electricity for homes and businesses, because permanent public facilities[14,15] such as the hydro-power plants were destroyed during the civil war. Many diesel generators in operation produce more harmful NOx emissions than gasoline (Eubanks, 270). No regulation yet exists to ensure that these machines are properly maintained.
Secondly, CO2 emissions from the increasing number of private and commercial vehicles clogging the streets and roads of overcrowded Monrovia are seriously affecting the air quality. About one-third of Liberia’s population now resides in the capital city. Many vehicles also operate on diesel fuel and their proper maintenance is presently unregulated. Driving along the congested roadways of Monrovia metro area means breathing in harmful particulates contained in clouds of dark gray smoke spewed out by these unmaintained cars and trucks.
Liberia is not solely responsible for its GHG problem. Over the past few years, many donated cars have arrived from the United States that are often neither fuel [gas] efficient nor environmentally friendly. These donations are directly related to the rise of U.S. gas prices and decline in book values. Many U.S. car owners receive more cash value from their old vehicle by donating it to charity as a tax deduction. This leaves Liberia as the dumping ground for unwanted U.S. vehicles, which then pollute the air or are abandoned along the roadside for the lack of spare parts available within this nation.
Mitigation and Adaption Policies
Liberia is experiencing several environmental changes that need to be addressed and managed through proper mechanisms. The main focus has been on policies of mitigation and adaptation for the forestry, energy and agriculture sectors. Said policies are intended to provide self-sustaining opportunities, primarily for rural communities since their poverty conditions are more acute than urban areas. This article summarizes, sector by sector, how this will help Liberia achieve carbon neutral status by 2050 while promoting its Poverty Reduction Strategy from the National Inter-Ministerial Dialogue (NIMD).
The main goal of the forestry sector policy is to promote sustainable forest management (SFM). In recent years Liberia has formulated policies that ensure preservation of forest lands. In 2007, one of these policy reforms the Government of Liberia implemented was the National Forest Management Strategy (NFMS) that is divided in zones known as the “3Cs”—Community, Conservation and Commercial (Koffa, 6). The government commissioned the Forest Development Authority (FDA) to regulate these zones. The primary objective for preservation is to allocate and manage Liberia’s remaining 4.39 million hectares of forest within these three zones or departments. The following is brief description of the purpose for each zone:
Commercial Department: To restart and regulate forest activity in accordance to Liberia’s laws, FDA authorities, and National Forest Policy sustainability objectives. The goal of commercial forestry is to develop it potential to provide Liberia with significant social and economic benefits.
Community Department: To assist communities in realizing the benefits of forest resources and managing forest resources in a sustainable manner since trees and forests have always been an integral part of rural community livelihoods.
Conservation Department: To conserve Liberia’s forest biodiversity and ecological services by regulating wildlife consumption and managing the current protected areas of Sapo National Park and Nimba Nature Reserve that covers 4% of Liberia’s forest area. Additionally, to create the National Protected Area Network that will increase the current two areas through Liberia’s pledge to the Convention on Biological Diversity to “set aside at least 10% of the land area for Strict Protection and 30% of the land for protection and multiple-use for partial protection.
In addition to strategies for the 3Cs, the following mitigation policy options have been created (Koffa, 7):
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)—(by using community forests as carbon pools through protection and sustainable management of existing forests).
Enhancing carbon sinks through increasing the sequestration rate in existing and new forests.
Providing wood fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels (biofuel plantations for fossil fuel substitute).
Providing wood products for more energy intensive materials (gasification, etc.)
The primary objective in the energy sector for climate change mitigation is to put in force a requirement for a reduction in fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation and include the addition of appropriate renewable energy sources that can produce and supply electricity. Energy is vital to Liberia’s economic development since it serves key areas like agriculture, communications, education, electricity, fisheries, healthcare, transportation, tourism, and other essential areas (Goanue 6-7). By introducing cleaner and more efficient energy sources, Liberia will reduce harmful CO2 emissions and supply more consumers with these affordable options.
In 2008, the Government of Liberia with the Ministry of Lands, Mines and Energy formulated a National Energy Policy (NEP). Complying with international efforts toward climate change mitigation, Liberia established the following NEP targets using 2009 as the base year (Goanue, 9):
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 10% by the energy sector in 2015.
Improving energy efficiency by 20% by 2015.
Raising the share of renewable energy being used for electricity production from current level of 10% to 30% by 2015.
Increasing the level of biofuels in transport fuel to 5% by 2015.
Implementing a long-term strategy to make Liberia a carbon neutral country, and eventually less carbon dependent by 2050.
Agriculture is Liberia’s main industry, employing over 70% of the nation’s labor force and contributing over 20% to its GDP. While over two-thirds of Liberians’ livelihoods depend on agriculture and other related activities, nearly 81% of this rural population is moderately vulnerable (41%) or highly vulnerable (40%) to food insecurity. The remaining populace is 11% food insecure and 9% food secure. These indicators bring up another alarming concern that 39% of children under five years are suffering from chronic malnutrition (Topor, 6).
It is the goal of the agriculture sector to create adaption policies that will increase opportunities to strengthen food security and decrease emissions of greenhouse gases by reducing deforestation, ensuring better land-use planning, and introducing state of the art agricultural practices (Topor, 4).
Currently, Liberia’s agricultural system is experiencing the impacts of climate change such as reduced soil moisture, shifts in temperature, erratic rainfall and heat waves. These changes have induced decreased crop yields, increased competition for limited resources, caused human migration in northwest and central regions of Liberia, and increased the spread of pests that caused havoc earlier this year when caterpillars destroyed several crops in northern region (Topor, 4).
The issue of climate change in the agriculture sector is a double-edge sword, because it is both a contributor of GHG and casualty of rising temperatures and shifting weather patterns. There is an urgent need for proper polices and changes otherwise Liberia will see an increase of families facing food insecurity, and this will further aggravate poverty by putting up to 80,000 children at risk of dying from malnutrition (Topor, 6).
Therefore, Liberia’s House of Representatives signed and approved the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) plan in 2008 that includes the following adaption strategies (Topor, 9-10):
Intensification and diversification of farming practices that include adapting low land cultivation (swamp rice production) rather than current slash and burn method and adopting new farming techniques and technologies.
Water management system to improve the efficiency of water use for crop production in areas that have experienced cycles of water scarcity since the early 1980s, and rehabilitate existing water harvesting and irrigation systems.
Reduce deforestation by implementing a practice of agro-forestry/afforestation/intercropping that encourages planting of fast growing nitrogen fixing tree species to improve soil fertility and minimize land degradation.
Liberia’s Way Forward
The Liberian people are still reeling from the destruction and emotional traumas from many years of violent civil conflict. However as a nation, it must remain on course with implementing its climate change policies and strategies in combating this recent threat to their livelihoods and overall existence. The changes cited in this article relating to environment and weather patterns have been noticed and discussed by most Liberians. Therefore, the undisputed facts and evidence of climate change in Liberia can no longer be ignored, because these adverse conditions are not going to improve on their own.
Liberia is one of many nations that has been divided by cultural, tribal, religious or economic differences. However, these differences have no bearing on one essential fact that we all share this one planet. This global concern for our collective environment could be the opportunity to change the course of human history by putting our differences aside and working together to save the one place we all call home, our planet Earth.
For Liberia, this could be the ideal opportunity to lift this nation out of the ruins of war and poverty. The state of the environment in Liberia is directly related to economic development and poverty reduction. Liberia can ensure their own existence by combining nation and peace building initiatives to protect its precious habitant and ecosystem that has been forever entrusted with their people. Liberians need to forgo their differences and join hands in working together to clean up and preserve the sacred beauty of their naturally rich nation. By partnering with the international community, who are committed to conservation and cleaner/efficient energy sources, Liberia can access technical and financial support for job creation in all sectors allowing more people the opportunity to move out of poverty. By taking these efforts in saving their beloved nation, Liberians can create a new chapter for lasting peace and economic stability. ______________________________________________________________________________
Reference Notes: 1 Liberia contains 4.5 million hectares of lowland tropical forest, half of all remaining forest within the Upper Guinea forests of West Africa. These forests are immensely important for their biological diversity, containing the last long-term viable populations of several threatened endemic species. These forests also provide important ecosystem services and hold the potential to help reduce high levels of poverty in the country. Conservational International file:///learn/forests/Pages/projects.aspx 2 The Upper Guinean Forest zone extends across the borders of eastern Sierra Leone, southeastern Guinea, Liberia, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and eastern Togo. It is considered one of the world’s priority conservation areas due to its rich biodiversity and the world’s highest diversity of mammals. The overall forest ecosystem covers around 420,000 km2 but estimations from the Conservation Priority-Setting Workshop in 1999 suggest a forest loss of almost four-fifths of the original extent (Desk Study, 14). 3 The Mount Coffee hydro-power plant (64 MW) along the St. Paul River and Yandohum micro-hydro power station (30 KW) in Lofa Country were destroyed during the war, but the Firestone hydro-power plant (4 MW) in Harbel is still in operation. (Goanue, 11). 4 In 1991, the daily treated water production for Monrovia amounted to 61,000 m3/day. After the war daily treated water production based on 2004 figures is approximately 5 800 m3/day (Desk Study, 27). 5 The only functioning sewage treatment plant is in Monrovia, but it was only intended for a population of 130,000 people thus it is unable to manage the current population of over 1 million people (Desk Study, 28). 6 Food insecurity means not having adequate food production to meet the needs of the people, access to food supplies, or ability to provide a balanced diet to reduce malnutrition in children (Fact Sheet). 7 Liberia’s Poverty Related Strategy (PRS) includes four pillars: 1) Enhancing National Security; 2) Revitalizing the Economy; 3) Strengthening Governance and Rule of Law; and 4) Rehabilitating Infrastructure and Basic Social Services—Education, Healthcare, and Water/Sanitation (At Work Together). 8 There is no known data that can estimate with any degree of accuracy the rate of forest reduction in Liberia. (Koffa, 5) 9 “Many coastal and marine environments in Liberia have suffered rapid deterioration due to a combination of increased population pressure and uncontrolled economic activities (Wiles, 12).” “It is projected that about 95km2 of land in the coastal zone of Liberia will be inundated as a result of one meter sea level rise (Wiles, 13).” Bushrod Island, Buchanan, Cestos City and Robertsport are areas on the coast where erosion is most severe (Wiles, 14). 10 The expansion of the savannah ecosystem for rice production predominately in Foya District, Lofa County, is creating the concern for the threat of desertification in Liberia (Topor, 9). 11 According to the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of Liberia (2004), CO2 emissions represent 50-60 percent of the local greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere in Liberia, of which the primary source comes from consumption of petroleum products. (Goanue, 6). 12 According to the Liberia Petroleum Refining Company (LPRC) in 2008 approximately 65,279,917 US gallons of refined petroleum products consisting of primarily gasoline and diesel fuel were imported to Liberia. From trend analysis conducted by LPRC from 2000-2008 consumption has more than doubled within this period—in 2003 approximately 20,000 US gallons were consumed. (Goanue, 12). 13 According the 2006 State of the Environment Report there was an estimate of about 45,000 small and medium privately operated power generating units, concentrated mainly in Monrovia. 14 According to the NEP/2008, the Emergency Power Program (EPP)—launched in 2006—was designed to re-establish public power supply by the Liberia Electricity Company producing a system composed of 9.6 MW diesel generation, 80 km of transmission and distribution network serving over 2,500 Monrovian customers and about 1,000 street lights within the first half of 2009 (Goanue, 11). 15 According to the NEP/2008, the national electricity grid, which had total installed capacity of 191 NW of power by 1989, currently generates only 9.6 MW (Goanue, 7). 16 If rebuilt the Mount Coffee Power Plant along the St. Paul River has the potential to produce about 824 MW compared to its pre-war capacity of 64 MW (Goanue, 11). 17 National Forest Management Strategy Objective (NFMS, 13). Commercial Department (NFMS, 20), Community Department (NFMS, 22), and Conservation Department (NFMS, 23). 18 A prediction that Stella Subah, nutrition adviser at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, cited in article in the New Democrat in 2009.
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Fact Sheet: Food Security and Nutrition in Liberia. Joint Programme of the Government of Liberia and United Nations. 2008. 09 June 2009. http://unliberia.org/doc/FSNemail.pdf
Goanue, Augustus V. National Issue Paper : Assessing and Developing Policy Options for Addressing Climate Change Mitigation Across the Energy Sector of Liberia. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). June 2009.
Koffa, Samuel N. Evaluating Investment and Financial Flows of Forestry Sector Issues in Climate Change Mitigation in Liberia. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 21 May 2009
Liberia’s Network of Protected Areas. Conservation International. Saving Forest/Projects. 2009.
National Forest Management Strategy (NFMS). Forest Development Authority. Monrovia, Liberia. 2007
Topor, Wollor E. Priorities and Challenges of Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Change—A Focus on the Liberian Agricultural Sector (An Issue Paper). United Nations Development Program (UNDP) : Liberia Global Project Team. 20 May 2009.
Wiles Sr., David L. Zone Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Liberia. Climate Change Unit/Environmental Protection Agency. Monrovia, Liberia. April 2005.